Victor Brauner, Biography

Was born on June 15, 1903, in Piatra Neamt, Romania.  His father was involved in spiritualism and sent him to an evangelical school in Braila from 1916 to 1918.  In 1921, he briefly attended the School of Fine Arts in Bucharest and painted Cezannesque landscapes.

He settled in Paris in 1930 and became a friend of compatriot Constantin Brancusi.  Then he met Yves Tanguy who introduced him to the Surrealists in Marseilles.  At the outset of World War II, Brauner fled to the South of France where he maintained contact with the Surrealists in Marseilles.  Later he sought refuge in Switzerland; unable to obtain suitable materials there, he improvised an encaustic form candle wax and developed a graffito technique.

He returned to Paris in 1945 and was included in the Exposition Internationale du Surrealisme at the Galerie Maeght in Paris 1947.  His postwar painting incorporated forms and symbols based on Tarot cards, Egyptian hieroglyphics and antique Mexican codices.  In the 1950's he traveled to Normandy and Italy and his work was shown at the Venice Biennale in 1954 and 1966.  He died in Paris on March 12, 1966.